**Author:** Atul Gupta

**Year of Publication:** September, 2018

**Abstract: **

Noted physicist Stephen Hawking said that blackbody radiation is predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the event horizon. Hawking Radiation is named after him, who provided a theoretical argument for its existence in 1974.

Hawking radiation predicts that it reduces the mass and energy of black holes also known as black hole evaporation. Because of this, black holes that do not gain mass through other means are expected to shrink and ultimately vanish. Micro black holes are predicted to be larger emitters of radiation than larger black holes and should shrink and dissipate faster.

My theory has an alternate view on this phenomena and I will argue that under no circumstance will the black hole lose its mass but in fact it will gain mass in all scenarios of Hawking Radiation. As a consequence, the black hole will never evaporate but grow bigger and bigger with time and with each instance of Hawking Radiation activity.

**Keywords:** Stephen Hawking, Vacuum Energy, Casimir Effect, Particle-Antiparticle Annihilation, Virtual Particles, Black Holes Evaporation, Event Horizon, Black Body Radiation, Heisenberg’s Energy-time Uncertainty Principle, Quantum Vacuum.

**Background**

Hawking radiation is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.

Hawking radiation reduces the mass and energy of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation. Because of this, black holes that do not gain mass through other means are expected to shrink and ultimately vanish. Micro black holes are predicted to be larger emitters of radiation than larger black holes and should shrink and dissipate faster.

In quantum field theory, the Casimir effect is particle energy arising from a quantized field. They are named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir who predicted them in 1948.

The Casimir effect can be understood by the idea that the presence of conducting metals and dielectrics alters the vacuum expectation value of the energy of the second quantized electromagnetic field. Since the value of this energy depends on the shapes and positions of the conductors and dielectrics, the Casimir effect manifests itself as a force between such objects.

The typical example is of the two uncharged conductive plates in a vacuum, placed a few nanometers apart. In a classical description, the lack of an external field means that there is no field between the plates, and no force would be measured between them. When this field is instead studied using the quantum electrodynamic vacuum, it is seen that the plates do affect the virtual photons which constitute the field, and generate a net force – either an attraction or a repulsion depending on the specific arrangement of the two plates.

Although the Casimir effect can be expressed in terms of virtual particles interacting with the objects, it is best described and more easily calculated in terms of the zero-point energy of a quantized field in the intervening space between the objects. This force has been measured and is a striking example of an effect captured formally by second quantization.

**Hawking Radiation**** & Non-****Evaporating Black Holes**

**Introduction**

**Vacuum Energy**

The causes of the Casimir effect are described by quantum field theory, which states that all of the various fundamental fields, such as the electromagnetic field, must be quantized at each and every point in space.

Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe. This behavior is codified in Heisenberg's energy–time uncertainty principle. The vacuum energy is a special case of zero-point energy that relates to the quantum vacuum.

The effects of vacuum energy can be experimentally observed in various phenomena such as spontaneous emission, the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift, and are thought to influence the behavior of the Universe on cosmological scales.

**Effects of Hawking Radiation**

**Creation of Virtual Particles: **Virtual particles are constantly created in pairs of particles and antiparticles and annihilated in vacuum in a very short time. When virtual particles are created near a Black Hole outside the event horizon, then there is a chance that the particles falls into the Black Hole or escaped into the Universe. Particles are always created in a particle & antiparticle virtual pair.

There are four scenarios of this case.

- that both particles escape from the Black Hole.
- that both particles fall into the Black Hole.
- that the particle fall into the Black Hole the antiparticle escapes.
- that the antiparticle fall into the Black Hole the particle escapes.

Now let us look at the scenarios of each case.

- If both particles escape into the Universe, the there is no effect on Black Hole even though they may appear to come from the black hole.
- If both particles fall into the Black Hole, then they will eventually annihilate each other releasing energy. This energy will create particle-antiparticle pair again and again a billion times until two matter particle are created due to matter-antimatter baryon asymmetry problem. The matter particles will eventually convert to mass and the mass of the Black Hole will increase by 2M as per Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence equation E=MC², where M = the mass of the particles, C is the speed of light and E = total energy.
- If the particle falls into the Black Hole and the antiparticle escapes, then the mass of the Black Hole will increase by 1M. The antiparticle will eventually find a particle in space and annihilate returning the energy it borrowed from the vacuum.
- If the antiparticle fall into the Black Hole and the particle escapes, then the antiparticle will combine with a particle inside the Black Hole and annihilate it and release energy. This will create particle-antiparticle pair again and again a billion times until a particle is created due to matter-antimatter baryon asymmetry problem. Finally the matter particle Black Hole will still gain one particle worth of mass.

From the above narration, we can see that the Black Hole is not losing mass in any scenario. Stephen Hawking theory believed that the antiparticle will always reduce the mass of the Black Hole which is similar to evaporation of mass. The Black Hole will eventually evaporate into nothing by losing all the mass slowly.

It may be noted from above illustration, that Black Holes will never radiate energy and therefore will have no temperature unlike what Stephen Hawking believed. Also no information from Black Holes is leaking out as the particles are not coming from Black Holes but from the vacuum outside the Black Hole event horizon. Black Hole is safe from information leakage, unlike what some scientists believe. In no scenario, the Black Hole loses its mass. It always gains mass.

It may appear that this is violation of first law of thermodynamics, violating the conservation of mass energy equation laws. In fact the energy is borrowed from vacuum energy and the vacuum becomes deficient by that much energy but the total energy in the Universe is conserved so there is no violation of law of conservation of energy in physics.

**Conclusions **

As we can see, in all scenarios, the black hole gains mass and will never evaporate. Nor will it radiate energy nor will it have any temperature. As such, the understanding of Stephen Hawking theory that black hole will eventually evaporate seems to be a flawed idea. Also, there is no observation or scientific proof of Black Hole evaporation or Black Hole temperature so far.

**Contact: **atul@atulgupta.com

**URL: https://www.atulgupta.com/blog/post/Hawking-Radiation-and-Non-Evaporating-Black-Holes **

**Citation: **Cite this article as “**Hawking Radiation & Non-Evaporating Black Holes” **by Atul Gupta, https://www.atulgupta.com/blog/post/Hawking-Radiation-and-Non-Evaporating-Black-Holes

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**Copyrights: **©2018 Atul Gupta. Parts of this article are referenced from Wikipedia.

**References Links**

**Stephen Hawking -** https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Hawking**Hawking Radiation -** https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawking_radiation**Casimir Effect -** https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casimir_effect **Virtual Particle - **https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_particle**Vacuum Energy** - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_energy**Energy Conservation -** https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservation_of_energy**Mass Energy Equivalence (E = MC****2****) -** https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_energy_equivalence**Antimatter -** https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimatter** ****The matter-antimatter asymmetry problem (Baryon Asymmetry) -** https://home.cern/topics/antimatter/matter-antimatter-asymmetry-problem , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baryon_asymmetry